The soil is the brown layer that wraps our planet. This is the more or less crumbly mass which manages the plant roots. Formed soil can be several feet thick or thin just a few inches. However, only the top layer of 10-30 cm is made ??up of fertile topsoil. If our Earth would one day run out of the topsoil, then our little world would again become a dead star.
Our planet has a diameter of about 12,600 km, however, just about 3.2 billion hectares would be theoretically usable for agricultural purposes. Currently, half of that feeds the whole mankind, but the second half could be cultivated only with extremely high costs. Theoretically, several decades ago, every inhabitant of the earth could use about 1 hectare of land. In 2000. it was only half a hectare.
Soil in the fields and gardens, therefore, represents a priceless thing everywhere in the world. It is, in the true sense of the word, the foundation of life. This living material, rich in various contents, has developed slowly over millions of years. The soil with its different layers is composed of mineral and organic ingredients. In the immeasurable time periods, while life on our planet was developing, the antic highland was slowly milled into powder. This stone powder created layers. Even today, we can imagine ??the massive, patient mill of the nature in large river valleys. In Egypt, the Nile, for example, every year inflicted fertile mud washed from the mountains of Ethiopia in plains. After the withdrawal of water, fertile fields remained on the sites where the sludge had settled on the coast, because the fine sand from the mountains contained minerals and micro-elements.
The composition of these important nutrients is different around the world, depending from which rock is the soil emerged. For the formation of all types of soil, an infinite amount of time was needed. This process continues today. Rocks are still decaying and the organic waste generates new soil. Humus, therefore, belongs to the “underground treasure” that can grow and regenerate itself. But this happens only where the age-old rules of nature are respected. Otherwise, it is quite possible in a short time to turn fertile land into desert. Often irreversibly. Declining groundwater levels, the occurrence of prairie, soil pollution and soil erosion are the symptoms of such devastation caused by the human negligence. Forests have been there before man – a desert followed him.
Soil pollution means changing the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil, leading to a reduction in its fertility and ability to conduct normal process of decomposition, and therefore the circulation of matter in nature. The main reasons of soil pollution are: agriculture, surface mines, quarries, landfills, industry, transport, acid rains and so on. Dumps are the most direct forms of pollution of the soil. Poisons are washed down with them, which are retained in the soil and in the groundwater. Acid rains are a significant source of indirect pollution of the soil. This global problem, in addition to drying of many forests, is leading to pollution of land in vast spaces. In addition to acid rain, there are other substances coming from the air that damage the soil. For example, dust, soot and other particles that are ejected through a variety of factory chimneys and cars.
Soil erosion is a physical removal of soil from the surface layer of the ground. Soil erosion is a natural process, but it can be a result of the destruction of natural ecosystems (especially forest), particularly on steep hills and mountains, as well as in the plains. Deforestation is a huge environmental issue, every day thousands of trees is cut down, all for the sake of industrial needs.
If deforestation and the other kinds of pollution will not be stopped,our own planet will ultimately die from global warming and lack of oxygen.
The problem is that most people do not think about future generations, the highest percentage thinks only of themselves and they do not care what will happen tomorrow. It will destroy us if we do not raise awareness of ecology and environmental protection. So let us think green and do something good for the our precious Planet.